Jokata Kaiseki as a woodblock printing artist who seemed to be a loner in the Shin Hanga（新版画）art movement, which took place in the first half of the 20th century in Japan and was meant to revive the then declined woodblock printing genre, famously known as ukiyo-e, the pictures of the floating world.
While most artists involved in Shin Hanga had been chaperoned by professional publishers, Jokata Kaiseki had single handedly self-published a series of woodblock prints, titled Twenty-five Views of Mount Fuji, from 1929 to 1931. He was also not associated with anyone active in the woodblock printing scene. Indeed, very little is known about this artist except that he was born in 1882 in Okayama, had lived in Kyoto and Tokyo, and returned to Okayama during the war years. But for many woodblock print collectors, a significant portion of pleasure in collecting prints comes precisely from discovering an outstanding print linked to an obscure name – the ecstasy of discovery.
We do not know what circumstances compelled Jokata to create and self publish this series of woodblock prints known as Twenty-five Views of Mount Fuji. Whatever it was, we have sufficient grounds to believe Jokata was an artist of firm resolution and endowed with strong executive capabilities. To produce a body of 25 designs of woodblock prints of high quality is an intimidatingly challenging project, artistically, technically and financially, especially when he himself had to function both as the artist and the publisher.
Twenty-five Views of Mount Fuji by Jokata Kaiseki well embodies the then thriving Shin Hanga style which incorporates western artistic expression, yet is grounded in traditional ukiyo-e subjects and woodblock printing techniques. Prints from this woodblock series are highly detailed, meticulously executed and have a painting-like quality. This woodblock printing technique of light embossing is widely used, especially on Mount Fuji.
Words inevitably cannot adequately convey the full power and beauty of visual arts, so we will let these woodblock prints speak for themselves and for the obscure artist Jokata Kaiseki.
*To avoid copyright issues, only 12 prints from personal collection are displayed here.
A shimosoga Plum Orchard and Mount Fuji/Original Woodblock Print (Personal Collection)
Guide to Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints: 1900-1975, Helen Merritt, University of Hawaii Press, 1992
Seven Masters: 20th Century Japanese Woodblock Prints from the Wells Collection, Andreas Marks, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2015
Ding Ding is Chinese and currently living Berlin. She works in an investment consultancy business and in her spare time is an avid explorer of Japanese literature, cinema, arts and history. She may be contacted at: email@example.com
In this column, I write about my life and experiences in the Kansai region of Japan. Since June, when I was adopted by a young kitten, that experience has involved sharing my house with a Japanese cat.
I woke and turned on the coffee kettle and padded to the bathroom, barely awake. On my way back to the kitchen, I suddenly felt three rapid taps upon the top of my head. That is the daily method in which my cat Kame-chan informs me that I have been pawed by a puma and therefore did not survive until breakfast. I look up and he is upon the water pipes running near the ceiling to the water heater.
This happens every day. Not just before I am fully awake, but anytime during the day. While I am passing any of the various high points in the house, I might be “pounced” by the triple-tap of the delicate paw with the razor-like claws, carefully sheathed.
Living the High Life
How did this little jungle beast learn to always gain the high ground? I had put up a shelf for my laundry supplies and even when the kitten was only ankle-high, he was jumping onto the laundry machine and then hopping onto the supply shelf. Of course, I learned about this only while hearing the kitten making a delightfully satisfied mewling in its throat (Hey Dad, guess what I can do!) amidst the clatter of clothes pins cascading to the floor. I went to the laundry room in time to watch the box of detergent make its own path to its demise.
Just days later, I found him on top of the 6-foot-tall dish cabinet in the kitchen. I realized that I had better make some accommodations to our home. I purchased some carpets from the local 100 yen (dollar store) discount shop and made a sling “hammock” suspended from the clothesline under the skylight in the laundry room (pictured below). This is another perch from which I am often pounced by a panther.
The Panther By Ogden Nash
The panther is like a leopard, Except it hasn’t been peppered. Should you behold a panther crouch, Prepare to say Ouch. Better yet, if called by a panther, Don’t anther.
Lord of the Land
Since Kame’s sling was easy and made no alteration to the apartment, I could put it up without consulting the property owner. I however also made a corner shelf for him with another bargain carpet piece. This meant adding a step shelf for him to launch himself from. This certainly requires getting the landlord’s permission which can be exceedingly difficult in Japan. Luckily, I have an unusually easy-going landlord.
Kame enjoys hopping up to this high shelf on his corner perch.
It is, in fact quite difficult to find a residence that even allows animals. If you want to have an animal, it is necessary when apartment hunting to search for places that are “petto sōdan” ペット相談 (pets are negotiable.) Some advice on how to find pet-friendly apartments or homes is to look at places more than 10 minutes walk from a subway or rail line, older buildings or city suburbs. Don’t lie to landlords and try to conceal altering your rooms or having pets, as it can get you immediately kicked out and losing your deposit money.
For Kame to quench his primeval spirit, even being able to run up and down stairs in our two-story home and his shelves and hammock, it is not enough. He wants the window into the bathtub room open. He supervises filling the tub and then gives himself a bath while I take mine.
With all of these options to play the lord of the jungle, he is happy most of the day while I am working at the computer. But sometimes he calls me from the second-floor with urgent meows as if he is trapped or injured. I will go upstairs only to find him prepared to spring upon his unwitting prey.
Osaka is steeped in history and is fortunate to have a beautiful restored castle centered in the heart of the city. It is surrounded by beautiful parkland open year-round 24 hours a day and features the Osaka Castle Museum.
There is, however, another castle that played an important role in Osaka’s history and makes for a great moderately challenging day hike. The Iimoriyama Castle ruins are about 15 km northwest of Osaka Castle in Shijonawate, Osaka. It is easily reached by the JR Gakkentoshi Line at Kyobashi Station.
The castle is a 3 km and 250m elevation hike from the Shijonawate station. There are many shops and restaurants in Shijonawate to prepare for the hike. I walked along the winding stream flowing from the mountains but if you have extra time, the Shijonawate Shrine is a worthwhile detour.
Iimoriyama Mountain extends from the Kawachi Ridge connecting to Mount Ikoma to the south and descends to a low pass in the ridge to the North. Climbing the northern face is a challenging scramble but the trail does have steps and in some cases hand ropes so hikers of all levels can handle this trip.
After walking about 20 minutes from the station, the trail head ascends into the woods with a shady, densely forested climb. It quickly becomes steep with double-height steps and there is commonly some erosion from heavy rains.
The climb will soon offer a vista to the north looking towards Kyoto. The main road from Kyoto passed below. The strategic value of this location is evident and even before the castle was constructed here around 1520, there were military forts commanding this spot.
This hike is especially popular for foliage in the fall but offers a great short hike year-round so close to Osaka city and is rarely crowded. After passing a side trail to Shijonawate Shrine, there is a final press to the castle.
At the top of the climb, there is a viewing deck and a statue to Masatsura Kusunoki, the hero of the Battle of Shijonawate in 1348, well before the construction of the castle.
Masatsura’s enduring fame is not for winning the battle but rather trying to avenge his father’s death, he fought his way into the opposing camp and came to within meters of meeting his foe when it was clear he would be taken, so he took his life with his own sword. His acts are held as a model of filial piety and honor.
Because of its powerful defensive nature and strategic location, the castle was torn down around 1570. All that remains today are the rock walls lining earthen defense structures.
Enjoy your time at the castle grounds and explore the ruins. This was one of the larger Japanese castles with a huge footprint of 800 by 400 meters. It had been defended by a dry moat and other constructions. Shijonawate was connected to the Yodogawa River, another reason for the location of this fortress to command the Osaka plains.
On your way down you can ponder the history of the castle and its role in the region. At the height of a warring states period under a weak empire, it was captured by Nagayoshi Miyoshi (1522-1564) and he moved his base there in 1559. The Miyoshi clan held stable control of the economic center in Sakai to the southwest. This allowed Nagayoshi to concentrate on keeping the Shogun in Kyoto at bay.
As the Shogunate was weak at this time, some historians ponder that Nagayoshi could have made bold moves and taken Kyoto as his own. Perhaps he was too cautious but maybe he was simply overcome by the peacefulness of the views. Whatever the reason, Nagayoshi and his lord Harumoto Hosokawa were killed in the battle of Taiheiji in 1564 marking the end of the castle’s prominence and its eventual destruction.
The climb down offers its own challenging sections and a few nice vistas. Before descending into the village of Nozaki you can view the Buddhist Jigenji Temple also known as Nozaki Kannon which can be accessed by crossing a short scenic bridge. The temple in coordination with Daito City Mountain Federation offer a downloadable detailed map (in Japanese only.)
Now you are in the village of Nozaki and it is a short trip to the JR station back to Osaka.
In Japan, there are many public parks in the cities and towns where you can go for a stroll, exercise, socialize and relax. Many have a variety of facilities for sports, children’s playscapes, public swimming pools and more.
Another common feature is BBQ areas, some supplying everything you need even the food while others offer the BBQ pits for the D.I.Y. crowd to bring in their own feast. While tents tend to spring up on the park lawns on any nice day, many of the parks have designated day camping facilities
Tsurumi Ryokuchi Park https://www.tsurumi-ryokuchi.jp/ ,situated between the Northeast of Osaka and Moriguchi Cities, is one of Osaka’s hidden gems. It covers over 300 acres, about half the size of New York City’s Central Park, and offers a lake, botanical gardens, a variety of recreational facilities and kilometers of trails. It is also known for Sakuya Konohana Kan, one of Japan’s largest greenhouses.
A surprising feature of this park is a campground featuring 10-place centered on a BBQ area and best of all, it is free. While some campgrounds are budget, most charge 2,000 and up.
I was bouncing off the wall with cabin fever because of Covid restrictions and I was eager to test out a new tent under actual conditions before taking it on longer cycling trips. During a week of rainy weather, I went directly to the office that manages the camping and BBQ and there was no problem booking an open spot. They even offered registration forms in English.
People often go to enjoy a bit or exercise or relaxation in a park, but it is an unusual experience to sleep in one. Thankfully, there was a break in the rain while I set up the tent. Even with the rain there were a few other campers who were not driven inside by the soggy weather and the happy sounds of children echoed around the crackling fire.
For being within the city limits of Osaka, the park became amazingly quiet. It is even protected from the traffic noise. By 21:00, the barbeque feasts were complete and kids were getting ready to climb into sleeping bags, exhausted from the day of playing in the park.
This was an evening that kindly granted us a break in the heavens to see the full moon rise. I was able to leave my tent and wander among the many people using the park even at night. Like most Japanese parks, it is open 24 hours a day. The Moon did not disappoint.
The residents of the campsite beside me also marveled at the moonrise. They were an Osaka single mother and her daughter seeking an escape before the summer holiday ended. The mother said that due to Covid restrictions, they did not get much of a chance to travel this summer so she wanted to do something special. The chance to be in a park, distanced from all the crowds of the city was a nice experience. She said it was better than going to a theme park during the ongoing emergency. Her pre-teen daughter rolled her eyes but remained silent.
The clouds soon enveloped the sky and blotting the Moon so I retreated to my tent. A park security vehicle, blue light rotating on top, did make its rounds a few times during the night. A cat yowled its disappointment at the lack of BBQ leftovers since nobody had used the two BBQ areas adjacent to the camps. I had some food in my pack that the kitty appreciated and so it was quiet for the night, as the rain began.
I woke before the dawn in darkness and the rain had ceased. I was pleased to find my tent had weathered the storm quite well and my sleeping bag was dry. I quickly grabbed my camera. Life would soon be stirring in the park.
The predawn golden hour was beckoning me and I wandered beyond the park to find a morning coffee. With another stormy day on the way, the morning sunrise was stunning. But this breathtaking view was short-lived, returning to leaden-grey overcast within minutes.
The morning summoned people and wildlife alike to congregate in the park. This was a weekday so there were many joggers taking their dogs for a run before work. It struck me how friendly and full of life the morning was.
Even on a cloudy morning the beauty of the park was overwhelming. The gardens in the park have a variety making some flora in season year-round.
The day was starting and a storm was threatening, so I returned to my tent and packed up my campsite. I made sure to carefully gather my my gear and to pack out the trash.
The campsite beside me was coming to life. Mother and daughter busily preparing breakfast. I asked the shy child if she had fun. She hesitated. Her mother answered for her. “Yes, she had alot of fun.” The daughter? She did not say otherwise.
It certainly was a memorable experience. It was nice to take advantage of this park that is just a few kilometers from Osaka station and a stop on the Nagahori Tsurumi Ryokuchi subway line.
Free campsites & Cheap campsites information in Japan – A listing of select free or low-cost campsites, mostly provided by local municipalities. https://camp.tabinchuya.com/en.html
Convention and Tourism Bureaus for cities or regions will often have listings of interesting tourism sites including campgrounds and day camping sites provided supported by the towns or local businesses.
Camping is still not a large industry in Japan so when searching for campgrounds assure that overnight camping is allowed and what facilities are offered.
Reserve ahead. Japan campgrounds, even if they have a vacancy, often will not rent spaces on the same day. Unplanned wandering is not advised. Make your plan and reservations well in advance.
The Japanese movie sector is never lacking for serious gangster movies nor delicate family dramas that are sure to bring audiences to tears. It is rare to see a work that can balance a good combination of these genres.
The 2021 Japanese crime drama movie, A Family (ヤクザと家族 ), played a pioneering role by exploring a fresh narrative upon the well-travelled yakuza theme. It was the follow-up to director Michihito Fujii’s successful The Brightest Roof in the Universe (2020) and The Journalist (2019) which was adapted to a TV series this year.
The three acts of this narrative tale were divided across 20 years with chapters based in 1999, 2005 and 2019, against the backdrop of the yakuza’s decline over that period.
Unlike the old-school yakuza tales, the storytelling in this movie took a close look at a single person’s struggle of adherence to his code of honor and family, despite the police’s increasing crackdown upon yakuza.
More than a yakuza drama, this is a tale of an orphan who tried to create family ties in the complicated networks defining the dark underbelly of Aichi Province in the city of Nagoya. What we find is the cold reality that everything Kenji strove for turned to dust. However, even in Kenji’s tragedy, there is sown seeds of hope in the next generation.
Following the death of his drug-addicted father, the closest thing young Kenji Yamamoto (Go Ayano) had to family was his two fellow street thugs that he called brothers.
The rakish teen intervened in a turf war between yakuza syndicates and saved the life of yakuza leader, Hiroshi Shibasaki (Hiroshi Tachi). Shibasaki ran his syndicate in strict adherence to the traditional yakuza code of honor and prohibited drug trade. Kenji found meaning and a sense of belonging in the gang “family.”
Kenji forged a strong commitment to the yakuza code and eventually took on the role of Shibasaki’s foster son. In the search to form a family of his own, Kenji fell for the spirited bar girl Yuka Kudo (Machiko Ono) who was a strong-minded orphan working hard to pay off college tuition. Sharing the same isolation, she shared a bond with Kenji and succumbed to his rough charms. Meanwhile, the owner of Kenji’s favorite restaurant, a single mother, had a child Tsubasa Kimura (Hayato Isomura) who grew up admiring Kenji and treating him as a surrogate father and idol.
The heart-warming development of intimate connections broke off once a yakuza territorial dispute infringed on the life Kenji was developing. After a bloody attack on Shibasaki, Kenji sought to defend the gang’s honor in a petty gangland vengeance which sent him to jail on a murder charge for 14 years.
Upon his return to the society, Kenji found the people in his life and the world he knew had faced earthshaking changes. He realized that it would be impossible for him to restart the life as a normal person. With no hopes remained, he decided to fight once again for the code of family.
The Proper Mix of Blood and Tears
Alternatively titled Yakuza and the Family, the story was not limited in portraying only Kenji’s yakuza family. It unfolded the narrative upon a variety of relations, tinged with Asian sentiment and sentimentality.
Whether it’s about honor-bound Yakuza family bonds, his lifelong “brothers”, the spiritual son Tsubasa, or Yuka who bore Kenji’s daughter, the narrative drew a wide spectrum of family ties within Kenji’s life. Their relationships with Kenji shaped the family drama themes of departure, reunion and continuity of generations, which added layers of colors to an otherwise dark and cold yakuza story.
In this sense, the movie can be regarded as an unconventional family drama even though it did delve into serious crime elements such as drug-dealing, assassination and revenge.
The story was a narrative breakthrough that gave it a more international appeal and, although the cinematography was not groundbreaking, the movie adopted an internationally industry-standard cinematic language, which may have broadened the film to reach more international audience. It certainly attracted Netflix to take a chance on this very Japanese genre.
However, being too industry standard has brought criticism that the movie lacks a cinematic signature in terms of director’s visual style and some reviewers have noted that, to a western audience, the story may seem melodramatic.
Still, it is a strong and personal account exploring the social implications of the realistic crackdown on Yakuza and the powerful performances of the actor ensemble make this a worthwhile watch.
A Family (Japanese: ヤクザと家族 The Family; alternate English title: Yakuza and the Family)—Japan. Directed by Michihito Fujii. First released January 29, 2021 in Japan. Running time 2hr 16min. Starring Go Ayano, Hiroshi Tachi, Machiko Ono.
By Jude Jiang
Jude Jiang is a bilingual writer based in China. She has a strong interest in bridging the understanding between western and eastern worlds through storytelling.
Pet ownership in Japan has been on the rise over the past decades. According to recent statistics, over 25 percent of Japanese households now include a cat or dog. In fact, Pets outnumber children in Japan. Government data shows there are less than 17 million youths under the age of 16 but there are over 18 million pets. A pet can be a great addition to your life and can bring endless joy and companionship but it also requires some responsibilities and planning.
It is a sad fact that many people buy a pet and then later decide it is not working out and abandon their pet. Ten years ago, in 2012, the Environment Ministry reported that there were 400 to 500 stray dogs or cats killed every day across Japan. The government in that year enacted a zero stray action plan which lead to rounding up 210,000 dogs and cats of which 160,000 were killed.
But the number of destroyed cats and dogs has been drastically reduced in recent years as more shelters and non-governmental charitable organizations have been developed to help rehouse these animals. Recent figures show less than 8,000 dogs and about 30,000 cats are still destroyed annually.
Pawer is an NGO that was created to educate people on the sensible option of adopting rather than purchasing a pet. Pawer’s motto is “Don’t shop, adopt!” More than 1,600 dogs and cats are purchased from pet stores in Japan daily. Most of the stock in pet stores come from large-scale breeding mills. These animals may suffer from long term or genetic health problems. If they are not sold, the futures for these puppies or kittens are in doubt and many will be slaughtered or sent to shelters.
Meanwhile, the number of abandoned pets exceeds 43,000 annually, according to PeaceWinds Japan, an NGO working to eliminate the slaughter of dogs and cats by working with governmental agencies, corporate partners and communities to provide alternatives for our furry friends.
Also pets sold in stores are quite expensive and even with that cost, often have not received proper veterinary care nor been spayed or neutered. Shelter animals have had complete medical care. Obviously, shelters charge a fee of about 20,000 yen ($185) usually including neutering or spaying, which is a bargain considering that at a vet office, that operation will cost considerably more.
Each shelter has its own process for adoption but this will usually include assuring the financial security and stability of the family and proof that pets are allowed in the home, especially in the case of rented apartments. Many landlords do not allow pets and that could lead to abandoned animals.
When you adopt an animal, you will usually be required in the adoption papers to maintain the pet’s routine medicals and to never sell, give away or euthanize the animal. If you must surrender the animal it must be only back to the shelter.
Aside from the NGO shelters, each town or municipality has their own animal control department. The town or district animal pound is also a great source for furry friends. Only a small percentage of animals taken in by authorities are reclaimed by owners. The vast majority are directly adopted, rescued by shelters or slaughtered. Pawer has assembled a list of shelters across Japan. This is not necessarily a complete list. http://pawer.jp/en/dont-shop-adopt/shelter-map/
Cats on the rise
There are now 9.64 million cats in Japan according to the Japan Pet Food Association and that number is growing by more than 1% annually while dog ownership is on the decline and currently there are less than 8.49 million dogs, down from over 10 million in 2014.
Cats are not a native species to Japan. Domestic cats arrived in Japan during the 6th century C.E., concurrent to the introduction of Buddhism to the islands, some scholars claim they were brought to protect sacred texts from rodent damage. Genetic data shows Japan’s common domestic cats came from China but originated in India.
So why have cats surpassed their canine counterparts? One factor is economic. The average cost of lifetime ownership for a cat is just over 700,000 yen ($6,500) while a dog will cost about 1.2 million yen. A large portion of this added cost is higher vet bills including rabies vaccine, city registration fees and larger dogs eat more.
Cats also better fit the modern and more urban lifestyle, according to many younger Japanese. Cats are seen as cleaner, take up less space, and require less fuss and grooming. With busy lifestyles, many professionals do not want to have to walk a dog 2 to 3 times a day.
Pets are forever
It is easy to fall in love when you see a kitten or puppy and pet ownership is rewarding and fun, but it is important to understand that adopting a pet is also a responsibility. A rescue animal has already suffered the upheaval of losing its home and maybe even hunger, living on the street or even abuse. The last thing you want to do after rescuing an animal is subject it to more hardship.
Remember pets might live up to 20 years. If you are not settled down and expect to move about or are not financially stable, maybe the time is not right to get a pet. You can still volunteer at shelters or even offer to be a foster home in the short term. Many shelters do not have enough spaces in their own facilities and rely on loving temporary homes.
If you do decide that you are ready to add on a new family member, then there are still some points to consider.
-As mentioned above, there is the cost over the lifetime of the pet. Some people consider pet insurance as well, if they might not be able to afford an unexpected medical cost in case of emergency.
-If you are renting, most landlords in Japan do not allow pets, so a shelter or city animal control will want to see your permission from your landlord or proof of home ownership so they can assure the home can accept pets.
-As part of the adoption process the shelter will want to know the number of people in your home, any existing pets, how you will fit the new member into your family and your lifestyle. They will want to know how long the animal will be left on its own daily and what are your plans if you will travel for work or holiday.
-They will ask for proof of employment and financial stability. Many shelters will want to inspect your home. This is all to ensure that the animal can be a proper fit for both the pet and the family.
-If you are a foreigner, most shelters will only allow adoptions to people with a permanent residence of family visa status because they do want to assure stability of the adoption for the long term. It is an all too common tragedy for a person returning to their home country to leave their pet behind.
-Find the right pet. Most of the animals in the shelters are capable of offering love and joy and becoming wonderful additions to your family. However, many of these animals did face some hardships or even abuse, so take time to get to know them and their emotional quirks before you decide. It is hard for both parties if things don’t work out and you must return an adopted animal.
-You will also want to find a vet you trust. Even smaller communities have neighborhood vet clinics and there are large chains of pet stores that cooperate with a veterinarian to have a clinic in their store. If you go with the chain store, do have an option if there are emergencies in off hours.
-Once you have decided to take the step and get a pet, it is important that you both have a great experience from the beginning. Prepare all the things for your new family member such as its bed, water and food bowls, feed, a leash, harness or carrying case, treats and toys. You also want to organize a place in the house that is quiet and out of the way for the pet because it might feel anxious or scared at going to a new place and will need to feel secure in its new home.
I grew up in a rural area of USA and frequently walked or bicycled long distances. This usually entailed traversing along a narrow strip of crumbling pavement on the outside of the white line. Even clinging to this slender shoulder, cars would whiz past at high speeds and frightfully close without giving any extra accommodation, clearance or consideration to more vulnerable road users.
All too commonly, as vehicles sped past occupants would shout out, “Get off the road!” There is a segment of people in USA that drive aggressively and see pedestrians or bicyclists as mere annoyances to their automotive travel. Bicyclists would LOVE to get off the road, in any country, but there are few places where they can. Increasingly, there needs to be more safe infrastructure to support pedestrian and bicycling travel.
The USA has a very high amount of road deaths but a low percentage of pedestrian or bicyclist deaths related to overall road fatalities compared to other countries because so few people walk or ride there. For the same reason, there are few accommodations made for those not traveling by motorized transportation. The number of fatalities per bicyclist or walker are however alarmingly high.
Japan has really very few actual bike paths so bikers must make a hybrid experience of biking with the flow of traffic and using sidewalks where they exist. Only the most crowded sidewalks in the busiest districts of cities are banned to bikes.
While European countries have many exclusive bike paths separated by barriers from cars or its own route and USA has increasingly added “rail trails” by converting former train tracks to paved bike paths, Japan has very few exclusive paths for cycling and pedestrians.
Luckily the drivers in Japan are for the most part safe and courteous and the rural roads have low traffic volume because the roads are narrow and sidewalks or bike routes are few. In fact there are only three approved national cycle routes in Japan according to government bicycle culture advocate Good Cycle Japan and these involve primarily road riding.
In many cities, there is little for bikes to do except to cruise the sidewalks. That is hardly an ideal solution because it brings bikers into close contact with pedestrians and is slow progress for cyclists and presents an obstacle course to maneuver. Admittedly, many central business districts do offer wide sidewalks with red lanes designed for bike travel.
However, where there are “bike lanes,” many are little more than a string of blue arrows near the shoulder of the traffic lane and the occasional image of a bike. This provides no actual protection for the bikes and frequently, cars park or travel in this space.
That is starting to change. Cities are adding more cycling accommodations like the meter-wide red trails along several major thoroughfares in Kyoto or similar blue lanes on several of Osaka’s main roads. Another accommodation is a separated trail along elevated highways like the Osaka-Kyoto’s route 1.
A more scenic way to safely walk or travel is the many riverside trails built on the flood control area near rivers, including the Yodogawa riverside trail that will take you from Osaka’s Kita area to downtown Kyoto in off-road safety.
There are also many smaller pedestrian paths that parallel a narrow road, designed get pedestrians off the road or a strip of parkland between one-way travel lanes such as the path leading north from Tsurumi Park in the northeastern area of Osaka.
I was happy to see that Google recently expanded its mapping to include cycle routing. Since that addition, I have found many new stretches of pedestrian lanes that I had not explored and it has been routing me through neighborhoods where there are few cars and many delightful sights to explore.
Bike ownership in Japan has been steadily on the rise and as concerns about the environment increase, there will be more pedestrian and bicycle traffic. There is also increased interest in biking and walking from fitness as well as simple recreational strolls or rides. For tourism, safety and a more sustainable urban infrastructure, Japan needs to continue to develop these important features.
“Get off the road.” In Kansai, it requires a little extra effort and planning, but more and more, we are able to get off the road. I hope the local government continues to fund and develop infrastructures for safe riding and pedestrians so that we can get off the road.
When one envisions Japan, a bullet train speeding between vast cities is one of the most iconic images. Amid the robust rail network traveled by long trains moving at breakneck speeds, Kansai’s Hojo Railway operates at an entirely different pace.
With 13.6 km of rail and only 8 stations on its single line, it is a charming step into the past for tourists but also remains an essential lifeline between the towns of Kasai and Ono in rural Hyogo province.
Flowers 1, 2 and 3
Railway lines crisscross Japan in a 30,625 km network with two-thirds of that belonging to JR, a group of companies that were formed with the privatization of the Japan National Railways in 1949. Most of the remaining rail lines serving the over 7 billion annual rides are with major regional rail lines.
Hojo Railway, opened in 1915, however, humbly operates its single line. Brightly-colored diesel-powered cars run on the antiquated 1.067 meter narrow-gauge rails, while most of Japan has adopted the standard-gauge 1.435 meter tracks. There trains, named “Flower-1, -2 and -3, are a single-unit commuter rail much like a subway train and even though it could pull additional rolling stock, there is only the single locomotive car with a capacity of 55 seats and about the same number of standing passengers.
Ono is a small but prosperous industrial city famed for exceptional quality “banshu” scissors, knives and razor-sharp scythes as well as abacus makers. It attracts many from Kobe for a day trip or weekend out of the city to enjoy a hike on the Monogatari range, rocky hills under 200 meters known as the “Ono Alps” and to enjoy the natural hot springs. It lies inland and west of Kobe along the route to Tamba-Sassayama and the northern coast.
Touching The Third Rail
If you board the Hojo Railway at that Ao station terminal in Ono, you will find that the station is a JR station and the ticket machine does not offer Hojomachi or Kasai as a destination. If you ask the JR station master he will point to one turn-style that is open and will tell you to go to track 3. There are only signs for track 1 or 2 and no other platform is visible but the station master indicates to head towards track 2 by a pedestrian bridge. The third rail finally becomes visible, an overgrown narrow-gauge track veering off from the JR rail lines which connect Ono to the cities Kobe and Himeji in one direction and the villages of Kato and Tamba in the other.
A Link to the Past
Except for spring cherry blossom or autumn leaf viewing season, one might not expect this train to carry many passengers but it is a link to bring day hikers from Kobe to the historic World War II remains of Uzurano Airbase and the brisk climb up to the vistas of Furubokke Nature Park. It is also an essential lifeline for Kasai residents to get anywhere by public transportation via transfer at Ao.
While an array of vacationing families and day-tripping elderly in full hiking gear queue up to board the train at Ao, locals arriving from Kasai and the farm villages along the way disembark to do business or, luggage in tow, head to the JR platform for parts unknown.
Find Your Own Pace
Though the Shinkansen trains speed along at over 300 km/hr, the Flower locomotives make the trip to from end-to-end in a leisurely 22 minutes. It is a chance to leave the city behind and truly find a countryside experience just an hour away from Kobe.
As the train pulls out of Ao Station it almost immediately plunges into a tunnel of forest encroaching on the overgrown tracks, leaving the cityscape of Ono behind. When the train emerges, it feels like being magically transported into a distant countryside. The train traverses a carpet of green farmlands and quaint farmhouses to service the historic stations on its way to Kasai.
Plan to have plenty of coins since transit cards like the ICOCA are not accepted and there is only a station master staffing the Hojomachi station terminal in Kasai. You pay as you exit, so if you are getting off it is hard for the conductor to make change. Full fare is 420 yen and half fare for children. The fare table can be found at the Hojo Railway website. The midway stations are also not staffed but some of these quaint old stations are historic landmarks and may have a concessions booth within.
If you take the train all the way from Ono to Kasai, there are rental bikes to peddle around to some of the local sites (see map). Attractions in Kasai include a charming old street with some well-preserved historical homes and businesses, Maruyama Total Park offers a hilltop vantage of the city and there is the Tamaoka Historical Park where visitors can explore ancient burial mounds. Folding bikes are also allowed on the train so you can ride to explore sites along the railway and then hop aboard when you want to return.
Every new place you
go to in Japan seems to present a different set of rules for分別bunbetsu, (classification or separation of
trash) and the process can seem confusing. In some serviced apartments, shared
living spaces and housing developments, the residents need to do very little
sorting, as facility management handles the dirty work. But if you move out to
a house or flat on your own, the rules can seem daunting.
apartment building, housing complex or whole neighborhood may share a long
series of labeled trash bins with strict rules for separation of waste and
various classifications of recyclables. More rural neighborhoods tend to have
scheduled curbside pickups but the angst around separation is no less critical.
Each complex or neighborhood will have its own system and when you register
your address, you will get information about the local rules.
The four basic
categories are burnable, non-burnable, recyclables and plastics. There is a
certain gray area for some items, so study the rules closely to be free of “separation
anxiety.” In most places, you have to
wash and dry the recyclables and divide the PET bottles, beverage cans, glass
bottles and recyclable paper and cardboard. There is a fifth category of trash
known as “oversized” garbage but that also includes items like old electronics
and electrical devices that require special handling and each city has a system
to schedule pickups. There is a fee that must be paid per item with tax stamps
that can be purchased at the post office and in some cases are available at
local convenience stores.
If you have curbside
pickups, each of these may be collected on a different schedule, so you may
find yourself bringing something out every morning of the week. Many towns will
require specific bags which will be available in supermarkets, convenience
stores and 100 yen shops. There might even be different color bags for
different types of trash and a voucher system to limit the number of bags used
per person each year.
If you don’t
properly handle your trash, sanitation workers might tag the bag with a refusal
sticker and leave it behind, which will publicly shame the offender. Further
violations may lead to fines. Also keep the workers safe. If you are discarding
broken glass or sharp objects, wrap the sharp edges and mark the bag as キケンkiken (hazardous.) Remember to
make your life and the lives of the sanitation workers easier by assuring that
you sort properly and use the correct bags.
Despite all the
efforts to effectively and efficiently handle recycling, Japan has a huge problem with consumption, most
notably with plastics. Japan’s annual production of single-use plastics topped 9.4
million tones. It is seeking to reduce that 25 percent by 2030 as part of a
commitment to the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle.)
Japan has a high
standard of customer service and a high standard of living. In the modern
world, that has lead to a love affair with convenience and consumerism resulting
in a deluge of single-use plastic. Every consumer item seems to be heavily
overpackaged, in big boxes and plastic cases, or wrapped in plastic sheeting. Also,
there are so many plastic items that were designed to be discarded like straws
and utensils. Shopping for groceries will inevitably lead to aisles of single
pieces of fruit or vegetable showcased on a Styrofoam tray wrapped heavily in a
cocoon of plastic. It seems like there is no end in sight, but a new policy may
give Japanese people cause to examine their plastic habit.
Major chains like Aeon and Ito-Yokado were forward thinking and have already adopted the practice of charging for plastic bags. Starting in July 2020, this will be mandated across the nation. The initiative to reduce plastic waste involves banning free plastic bags and encouraging reusable bags. Japan currently discards about 30 billion bags a year, yet that accounts for only about 2 percent of the annual plastic waste.“The proportion of plastic bags among plastic waste is not big, but charging would be symbolic,” said Environment Minister Yoshiaki Harada in a June 2019 press briefing.
Countries around the
world are grappling with the ever-increasing concern of handling garbage but in
few places is it as critical as the mountainous islands that make up Japan. The
country’s 1,661 landfills have remaining
capacity of 100 million cubic meters. At the current rate of
consumption, the nation’s dumps will be filled to capacity by 2040, according
to the Ministry of the Environment.
of the waste produced in Japan is incinerated, which does keep it out of the
landfills but contributes to air pollution and global warming. Trash generation
has decreased from a peak of nearly 1200 g of daily waste per capita in the
late 1990s to a current rate of about 950 g according to EU-Japan
Centre for Industrial Cooperation. Clearly, however, other measures are needed to address
this growing concern.
Osaka hosted the
2019 G20 Summit, an annual meeting of finance ministers and central bank
governors, where there was special emphasis placed on implementation of the 3R policy
in Asia. Though Japan has a well-defined recycling framework, it only recycles
about 20 percent of its municipal waste while Germany leads the world at 65
percent and S. Korea at 59 percent, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Japan’s
industries produce nearly 10 times the amount of waste annually compared to
households. With stringent standards on industrial recycling and waste
management, recycling rates approach 50 percent but industrial waste remains a
Japan refused to
sign a 2018 G7 ocean plastics charter, despite 60,000 tonnes of the over 8 million tonnes of plastics entering the ocean
annually originating from Japan. Introducing an agreement to reduce marine
plastic became a focus for Japan at the 2019 summit.
Japan has made the claim of recycling over 85 percent of its plastic waste, up
to 20 percent is exported and a vast portion of the remainder undergoes
so-called “thermal recycling,” in other words it is incinerated for the heating
value.Though it produces thermal energy from waste, most countries would not
consider that as recycling. The “clean incineration” process does remove many
of the toxins from the exhaust but still produces CO2 and other pollutants.
does rate highly in other areas of recycling. The metal recycling rate
approaches 98% and beverage cans have a recycling ratio of 87.4 percent.
Furthermore Japan recycled 498,000 tonnes of PET bottles for a recycling
rate of 84.8 percent. The majority of electronic appliances and electrical
products are recycled with up to 89 percent of the materials recovered.
why is the overall recycling rate for municipal trash among the lowest in the
OECD countries? Foods and consumer goods are heavily over-packaged and
consumption remains high. The ubiquitous presence of convenience stores might
be seen as a sign of the Japanese addiction to consumerism.
Another answer to the waste equation is food waste which is
incinerated. About 20 percent of the overall waste produced in the country is household
food waste, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. This
accounts for a staggering 6.5 million tonnes annually. Combined with the huge amount
of food that expires on retailers’ shelves or in wholesalers’ warehouses
without ever reaching the consumer, it is clear that there is a huge disconnect
with the need to reduce waste. It is also of critical importance because Japan
is only 40 percent self-reliant in terms of food production.
Trash and Carry
Since Japan does not
have public trash bins, the need for reducing consumption becomes abundantly
clear when traveling. Tourists or even anyone just roving about town meet with
the challenge of the trash they create. Since you must pack it with you until
you get home, you have time to consider reducing your trash footprint. The
Covid 19 emergency has intensified this inconvenience. Most supermarkets and
convenience stores previously offered recycling and waste bins for customers
but many have suspended this service to reduce virus transmission. Drink
bottles and cans may still be dropped in bins alongside most vending machines
but other trash should not be deposited there.
thing is clear, for Japan to successfully face the future, we will all have to
examine ways in which we can change our lifestyles and our buying habits.
If you find yourself in Yao, a small suburban community on the east side of Osaka, then it is worth dropping by the Kintestsu Yao station to grab a bite at Pedro’s Burger. Of course, Yao does not have many attractions to bring in tourists, so even though Pedro’s Burger only holds about 12 people, you will probably find a seat.
Yao, founded in 1948, is a rapidly-growing industrial town at the foot of Mount Takayasu with about 270,000 residents. It is centered around a general aviation airport which was founded as Hanshin Avaiation School in 1938. It remains a great place to catch a scenic flight.
Mount Takayasu, itself is perhaps the strongest draw to visit Yao. There is well-preserved historical architecture in slope-side villages and many paths along this peak which is a part of the ridge dividing Nara and Osaka prefectures. The most interesting feature of this mountain is the Takayasu Senzuka Kofungun, a series of hundreds of burial mounds that hikers can visit.
After exploring Yao, there are many local cuisines that are featured in the local restaurants, especially the locally-grown green soy beans. But “Pedro”, who opened Pedro’s Burger in 2016, is undertaking a mission to make Yao, and the world, better through burgers. He says burgers are addictive and he is creating “burgerholics” one burger at a time. The restaurant welcomes visitors with a unique mix of knick-knacks reflecting American and Australian pop culture.
Pedro, who is now 40 years old, is an Osakan native with a past as eclectic as his restaurant. He backpacked to over 20 countries in North America, Europe and Asia and took an extended work holiday. He has learned the food industry from the ground up with experience at Japanese restaurants, ramen houses and American diners.
The burgers are well-made with a larger-than-expected patty of quality beef and a satisfying order of fries. There is a variety of burgers to suit various tastes, but the signature Pedro Burger is a must, coming in at under 800 yen. It features a solid patty of lean beef resting atop a garden fresh and welcoming pile of crisp lettuce, a house-special sauce and a layer of pickled ginger to make this a distinctly Asian burger experience.
Like most Japanese burgers, the sauce is laid on heavily enough it will drip so the burger is served on foil. Thankfully the menu has pictorial descriptions of how best to fold the foil to enjoy the burger while trapping the flow of sauces.
When leaving, the proprietor will mention a burger that you should try next time. He is confident that you will be hooked.
How to get there:
Address: 14 3 ４丁目, 3 Higashihonmachi, Yao, Osaka 581-0004 (about 5 min. walk east from Kintetsu Yao Station)
Opening hours: Daily 11:00-20:00 (Closed on Mondays and public holidays)
Nearest station: Kintetsu Railway Yao Station (from Tsuruhashi Station)